Crisis is the best time for changes in the economic strategy of .Energy is no longer the main source of income for Russia. It is necessary to develop domestic production, especially in industries traditionally dependent on imports. For example, the share of imports in Russian engineering( especially machine-tool construction) reaches 60-80%, in oil and gas equipment - up to 70%, in pharmaceuticals - up to 70-80%, and in the electronics and light industry reaches 90%.Unfortunately, it is impossible to solve this problem quickly: import substitution is a long and complex process. However, the first "swallows" of the coming changes have already appeared.
We present to your attention the five best examples of import substitution in Russia in 2014-2015.
- 5. Oil and gas industry and oil engineering
- 4. Agricultural machinery industry
- 3. Military industry
- 2. Software
- 1. Agriculture and milk products
5. Oil and gas industry and oil engineering
One of the new projects of Rosneft -The new production complex "Zvezda", engaged in the creation of a shipbuilding base. The Russian Factoring Company, together with Surgutneftegaz, is engaged in the construction of hydraulic fracturing equipment. Uralmash is developing a drive system for drilling rigs. The Perm machine-building company is experiencing a new complex of a rotary controlled system.
Responsible for the need for import substitution came Gazprom: it imposed a ban on the purchase of foreign equipment for all its units. In addition, the company has created a register of used imported equipment so that any machine-building company that wants to develop a new market knows what the request is for. Test samples of OAO Gazprom are ready to test live and in case of a successful result they will immediately acquire.
4. Agricultural machinery construction
Concern Tractor Plants has invested 700 million rubles in the creation of wheeled tractors with an automatic control system. The potential need up to 2020 in such tractors is about 160 units. It is planned that the profit by this time will amount to 1.2 billion rubles.
3. Military industry
The program of strategic nuclear forces development, which refused participation of Ukrainian producers, entered the import substitution rating. Now the Topol-M, Yars and Bulava missile systems are manufactured entirely from domestic components. A new Sarmat missile has already gone into production. There were also own air-to-air air missiles, and a powerful Russian army began to receive the REB Moskva-1 complexes created with the latest technology.
Companies 1C and Acronis are engaged in the production of software and successfully withstand many years of competition with foreign manufacturers. ERP-system "1C: Enterprise" successfully competes with Microsoft, SAP and Oracle. Currently, the company "1C" 30% of the Russian ERP market in money. The number of units in "1C" in the Russian Federation is greater than that of SAP around the world.
1. Agricultural and dairy products
Import substitution contributes to the growth of the share of domestic production - especially in such sectors as pork, poultry, cheese, butter and, to some extent, herring. According to the mayor of Moscow, 90% of the market of dairy products in the city is already occupied by domestic products.
But, unfortunately, many manufacturers in the pursuit of a long ruble fill the shelves with counterfeits. For example, according to Rosstat, imports of palm oil and its derivatives to Russia rose to 260 thousand tons, it is used for the production of cheap and low-grade dairy products.
The best example of import substitution in the market of , which uses only domestic raw materials in production - "Lianozovo Dairy Plant".Recently, the plant launched a new workshop, which began to process the whey obtained during the manufacture of dairy products in dry form( it is used in the bakery, confectionery and meat industries).The workshop invested 7.5 million euros, of which about one third was invested in Russian-made equipment. Another combine opened a new packaging line and invested 21 million in the production of milk bottles.