Almost every citizen of the Russian Federation knows about the existence of a remote island of the homeland, which is the Kaliningrad region. At the same time, few thought about why this territory belongs to our country, not Germany or Poland. In fact, this issue is very interesting from a historical point of view.
The regional center of the westernmost region of Russia by no means always bore the name of the best city in Russia - Kaliningrad .In the early historical documents, it was called unusual for a Russian man - Tvangste .Then, in the period from 1255 to July 4, 1946, the city became known as the German manner - Koenigsberg .It was an economic and cultural center, the capital of East Prussia. A significant part of this province following the results of the Potsdam conference was transferred to the USSR and later became the Kaliningrad region.
For the city, several dates are especially memorable. One of which is April 6, 1945.It was on this day that the Red Army troops began the assault on Koenigsberg. During the battle on both sides, many soldiers died. A large contribution to the positive outcome of the assault was made by the elite Guards units. That is why in their honor in Kaliningrad and installed a monument to the "1200 Guards".Another event that affected the fate of the city happened on July 4, 1946.On this day M.I.Kalinin, who at that time received the private title of "All-Union elder".In his honor, it was decided to rename Koenigsberg.
Development of the city
In the postwar period, Kaliningrad became very actively populated. In parallel, the process of changing the national composition of the city was under way. According to the 1947 census, only 20,000 remained. Although a few years earlier this figure was 20 times greater. To the historical architectural and cultural heritage "new owners" also treated without much piety. The old city, which suffered from military operations, was not restored, and even on the contrary its ruins were mercilessly destroyed. In their place were built standard panel houses. Therefore, German buildings remained only closer to the outskirts.
At the same time in the 80s the attitude to architectural monuments changed. During this period, the restoration of the Sagrada Familia, the memory of Queen Louise, the Koenigsberg exchange are being carried out. Somewhat later, the historical appearance of the Cathedral and Hanseatic Square( Victory Square) was restored.
Military and economic importance of
Thus, Kaliningrad is an amazing mixture of cultures. And if we look for a "window to Europe" in Russia, we can not find a more suitable candidate for this title. Indeed, the city has not only strategic military and economic significance. It is also one of the spiritual centers of modern Russia. There are many museums and large libraries, several theaters, a zoo and a botanical garden, as well as the Art Gallery. Separate mention deserves the Cathedral, which along with amber is a symbol of Kaliningrad, tk. In this religious center the Orthodox and Lutheran cultures are closely intertwined.
The best city in Russia
In order to learn about all the sights of the city it certainly needs to be visited. As a confirmation of the fact that time will not be wasted, numerous ratings, in which Kaliningrad occupies a leading position, stand out. For example, the magazine Kommersant for three consecutive years( 2012, 2013 and 2014) recognized it as the best city in Russia, and according to the version of "RBC" it is also the most beautiful settlement in the country.